The army is raised in all the provinces, with the exception of Hungary and Transylvania, by conscription, from which, however, the families of the nobility and gentry (Kleiner Adel) are exempted. The whole country is divided into districts for each regiment, which are thus portioned:
At present the infantry consists of about 196,000 men, all regiments having two battalions of 1200 men each, and 12 companies. A third battalion is provided for every regiment, but it is only called out on emergencies; it is called the Landwehr and this augmentation in time of war raises the number of infantry to 651,000 men.
Other Arms Edit
The cavalry peace establishment is 45,000 men; that of artillery 17,800; and of engineers, including garrison and frontier artillery corps, sappers and miners, and a battalion of pontoniers, and one of tschaikistos (in the gun-boats on the Danube and the Save), 13,000; making a grand total of 271,800 men.
Since the accession of the present emperor a number of improvements have been introduced into the military department. The short breeches and light gaiters of the infantry have disappeared, as well as the jack-boots which formerly encumbered the artillery, and have been replaced by trousers and shoes. The infantry are dressed in white coats, of coarse but comfortable cloth, with light-blue trousers, the Hungarian regiments being distinguished by their national light pantaloons. The cavalry wear the national dresses peculiar to their several descriptions of arms. Hungary furnishes the hussars, and Galicia the lancer regiments; the Italian, Slavonic, and German cavalry regiments wear white uniforms with helmets.
Recruiting and Promotion Edit
The men are usually taken from the provinces in which each regiment has its conscription depot; but the officers are mixed throughout the army, and their promotion is seldom confined to one regiment. The finest men of each infantry regiment are selected to form the grenadier companies, usually in garrison at Vienna, Milan, Pesth, or Prague; these companies form a corps of 20 battalions, which, (for their number) are perhaps the finest men in Europe. The troops are well clothed and fed; and though the annual drain of the strongest and healthiest of the population must be felt by the community at large, there is no reason for supposing that the conscription is regarded as a hardship by the poorer classes. In Hungary the case is different; the regiments of that country are raised by recruiting, and the men are usually seduced by the promise of being placed in the hussar regiments; but in general the Hungarian peasants are decidedly adverse from the service, though they make excellent soldiers. It is permitted to those who can do so, to find a substitute; but the conscription too often includes persons of education who, being unable to purchase their exemption, are cut off from all hopes of advancement, as no promotion, except in the artillery, is made from the ranks. The colonel-in-chief of each regiment names and promotes the officers of up to the rank of captain. The field officers are nominated by the emperor, and usually advance according to seniority.
The word of command is given, throughout the army, in German; and it is probably to assist the memory of numbers who do not understand its meaning that the “flugelmann” is still retained. Punishments are, in general, severe, and flogging is of almost daily repetition, especially in the Hungarian regiments. The terms of service is, for the men raised by conscription, fourteen years, but is expected shortly to be reduced to ten years. At the expiration of this term, however, the men may re-enlist at their option. The service in the artillery is usually for life.
German Confederacy Contingent Edit
Austria's contingent to the confederate German army is 94,822 men, forming the first, second, and third divisions. Exclusive of various foraging allowances, the army is supposed to cost annually about 45,000,0000 fl, or £4,500,000
The fortification of the avenues by which the French armies in the last war penetrated to the capital has drawn much attention. Linz has been rendered very strong, as the key to the valley of the Danube; and the passage from Italy through the Tyrol has been protected by the erection of a citadel and strong works at Brixen. The principal fortresses beside these in the Austrian empire are, Mantus, Pizzighitone, Legnano, Fuentes, Malaghers, Asopo, and Palmanuova, in Italy; Zara, Ragues, and Cattaro, in Dalmatia; Peterwardein, Broodt, Comorn, Buda, Leopoldstadt, Gratz, Szigeth, and Temeswar, in Hungary; Carlstadt, in Croatia; Theredenstadt, and Josepthstadt, in Bohemia; and Olmutz, in Moravia. The whole of Galacia lies open towards Russia without a single fortress. Other fortresses of minor importance are scattered through the different provinces: besides the castles of Brunn, Kuffstein, Milan, Triest, Linz, Brixen, Buda, Munkaes, etc., Austria has likewise the right of garrisoning Commachio and Ferrara in the Papal States, and Placenza in the grand duchy of Parma. Mayence, in the grand duchy of Darmstadt, is half garrisoned with Austrian, and half with Prussian troops, as stipulated by the treaty of Vienna.